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Citation / Referencing Guide: End of Text Reference List

End of Text Reference List

  • The reference list includes all sources which you have referenced, or quoted for writing your essay. All in-text referencing must have a corresponding entry in the list, except for the case when citing personal communication.
  • List the sources in alphabetical order, according to the last name/surname of the first author of the source.
  • Enter the author’s name in inverted order (last name/surname first) capitalizing their initials (first and middle names).
  • If there is no author for a source, arrange that source according to the first significant word in the title.
  • If you cite more than one source from the same author, arrange these sources from the same author chronologically according to their publication year.
  • When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first.
  • For repeated authors, use six hyphens and a full stop (——.) to replace the author name of the subsequent entries.
  • If the same author writes more than one work in the same year, differentiate them by adding letters to the publication year. (2000a, 2000b)
  • Use hanging indentation for the reference list. (indent 3 spaces)
  • Use italics to enter book/journal titles.
  • For article or chapter titles, only capitalize the first word of the title, the subtitle, proper nouns and certain other types of words. Use lowercase for everything else.

Print Book:

Format
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year of publication). Title of book. Location of publication: Publisher.
Example 1
Finney, J. (1970). Time and again. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Example 2 Kaminski, D., & Jensen, M. K. (2005). Introduction to thermal and fluids engineering. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley

New Edition of Book:

Format
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year of publication). Title of book (edition). Location of publication: Publisher.
Example
Taylor, S. E. (2003). Health psychology (5th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Revised edition of book:

Format
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year of publication). Title of book (Rev. ed.). Location of publication: Publisher.
Example
Culliney, J. L. (2006). Islands in a far sea: The fate of nature in Hawaii (Rev. ed.). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.

Organization as author and publisher:

Format
Name of organisation. (year of publication). Title of book (edition). Location of publication. Publisher.
Example
American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American psychological association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Multi-volume book

Format
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Ed.). (year of publication). Title of book (Vols. xxx -xxx).  Location of publication: Publisher.
Example
Koch, S. (Ed.). (1959–1963). Psychology: A study of science (Vols. 1–6). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Note If the different volumes in a work or set are published in different years, indicate the range of years separated by a dash as shown above.

Edited book:

Format
Editor, A. A., & Editor, B. B. (Eds.). (year of publication). Title of book (edition). Location of publication: Publisher.
Example 1
Fainstein, S. S., & Campbell, S. (Eds.). (1996). Readings in urban theory  (3rd ed.). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
Example 2 Williams, J. M. (Ed.). (2006). Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (5th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
Note For a single editor, use "(Ed.)".

Chapter in edited book:

Format
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location of publication: Publisher.
Example 1
Patterson, C. H. (1997). Client-centered supervision. In C. E. Watkins (Ed.), Handbook of psychotherapy supervision (pp. 134-146). New York: Wiley.
Example 2
Hamilton, R. B., & Newman, J. P. (2018). The response modulation hypothesis: Formulation, development, and implications for psychotherapy. In C. J. Patrick (Ed.), Handbook of psychotherapy (2nd ed., pp. 80 - 93). New York, NY: Guildford Press. 
Note
For a single editor, use "(Ed.)"

Ebook with DOI

A DOI is a unique alphanumeric number for identifying the content and provides permanent link to its location on the internet. Some library databases such as Springerlink provide DOI to the ebooks. In the database record for an e-book, you will see an element that looks like the screenshot below, which you should include after "http://dx.doi.org/" at the end of your APA reference. See other acceptable variations for DOI.

DOI
10.1007/978-3-319-20571-7

The examples below include books that are published in electronic form only. When DOIs are assigned, use them as noted in the examples that follow.

Ebook with DOI

Format
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year of publication). Title of book. doi:xxxx
Example

Prout, M. F., & Schwarz, R. A. (1991). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-0756-1

Ebook without DOI               

Format
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year of publication). Title of book. Retrieved from http://xxxxx
Example 1

Miller, L. (2008). Careers for nature lovers & other outdoor types. Retrieved from http://www.ebscohost.com

Example 2
Allen, G. M., & Tozzer, A. M. (1910). Animal figures in the Maya codices. [Project Gutenburg version]. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/19042

Ebook from eBook reader

Format
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year of publication). Title of book. [E-reader version, if applicable]. Retrieved from https://xxxxx
Example 1

Gladwell, M. (2008). Outliers: The story of success [Kindle DX version]. Retrieved from https://amazon.com

Example 2 Earle, M., Earle, R., & Anderson, A. (2001). Food product development [Kindle DX version]. Retrieved from https://amazon.com

Print Journal Article

Format
Author, A. A, & Author, B. B. (year of publication). Title of article. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page - page.
Example 1
Hendricks, M., & Quinn, L. (2000). Teaching referencing as an introduction to epistemological empowerment. Teaching in Higher Education, 5(4), 447-457.
Example 2
Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T., . . . Rubin, L. H. (2009). Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user. Technical Communication, 57, 323-335.
Note For a source with 7 or more authors, after the sixth author's name, use an ellipsis (. . . ) in place of the author names. Then provide the final author name. There should be no more than seven names.

Electronic Journal Article with DOI

Format
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year of publication). Title of article. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page - page. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx
Example
Stow, J., & England, S. (2016). The rise of inclusive mainstream technology: Implications for occupational therapists. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 79(8), 457-458. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0308033616657110

Electronic Journal Article without DOI

Format
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year of publication). Title of article. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page–page. Retrieved from URL.
Example
McKillup, S., & McKillup, R. (2007). An assessment strategy that pre-empts plagiarism. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 3(2), 18-26. Retrieved from http://www.ojs.unisa.edu.au/index.php/IJEI

Print newspaper article

Format
Author, A. A. (year, month date of publication). Title of article. Newspaper Title, page–page.
Example
Meier, B. (2013, January 1). Energy drinks promise edge, but experts say proof is scant. New York Times,  p.1.

Online newspaper article

Format
Author, A. A. (year, month, date of publication). Title of article. Newspaper Title. Retrieved from URL
Example
Anand, G. (2010, April 2). Fire and fumes can't drive Indians from hellish village. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com

With author and date

Format
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from URL
Example 1
Schonfeld, E. (2010). Google throws $38.8 million to the wind [Web log post]. Retrieved from https://techcrunch.com/2010/05/03/google-38-8-million-wind/
Example 2
Anderson, M., & Jiang, J. J. (2018). Teens' social media habits and experiences. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/2018/11/28/teens-social-media-habits-and-experiences/

No author

Format
Title of document. (Year of publication). Retrieved from URL.
Example
All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2010). Retrieved from https://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39625809/ns/world_news-americas/
Note Substitute title for the author

No date

Format
Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (n.d.). Title of document. Retrieved from URL.
Example
The College of William and Mary. (n.d.). The William & Mary Mission Statement. Retrieved from http://www.wm.edu/about/administration/provost/about/mission/
Note  Use n.d. for no date
Retrieval date may be omitted if the URL of source material is static and does not change over time (e.g., wikis, www.singstat.gov.sg ).

Streaming video e.g. Youtube video

Format 
Author, A. A. [User name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx
User name. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx
Example 1
Stow, J., & England, S. (2016). The rise of inclusive mainstream technology: Implications for occupational therapists. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 79(8), 457-458. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0308033616657110
Example 2
Movieclips (2015, January 8). Harry Potter and the half-blood prince (5/5) movie clip - I'm the half-blood prince (2009) HD [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/8DbzvqOPUIk
Note  For retrievability purposes, the person who posted the video is credited as the author. If the person's real name and user name are both available, provide the real name in the format Author, A. A., followed by the user name inside brackets. Otherwise, when the real name is not available, include only the user name, without brackets.

From British Standards Institution (in print)

Format
Organisation that made the standard. (year). Title of the standard (Standard number). Place of publication: Publisher. 
Example 
British Standards Institution. (2018). Railway applications. Measurement of vertical forces on wheels and wheelsets. On-track measurement sites for vehicles in service (BS EN 15654-1:2018). Bristol, England: Author. 

From British Standards Institution (from database or website)

Format
Organisation that made the standard. (year). Title of the standard (Standard number). Retrieved from https://xxxxx
Example 
British Standards Institution. (2018). Railway applications. Measurement of vertical forces on wheels and wheelsets. On-track measurement sites for vehicles in service (BS EN 15654-1: 2018). Retrieved from British Standards Online. 

From National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Guidelines

Format 
Organisation that made the guidelines. (year). Title of the guidelines (Guideline Standard number). Retrieved from https://xxxxx
Example
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2013). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (NICE Quality Standard No. 39). Retrieved from https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs39

Note
You need to cite both the title of the standard and the standard number.

 

Format 
Author, A. A. (year). Patent Identifier No. xxx. Location: Source Name.
Example 1

From European Patent Office:

Cho, G. H., & Kim, S. Y. (2016). European Patent No. KR20160032407 (A). Munich, Germany: European Patent Office.
Example 2

From U.S. Patent Office:

Simon, J. E., Villani, T., & Koroch, A. (2018). U.S. Patent No. 10,067,041. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

See the parts highlighted in yellow

Note
You do not need to cite the title of the patent, unlike Standard.

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More Examples

For reference format and more examples, refer to APA Style Guide to Electronic References (including Personal Communication) and Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (available in SIT Library) produced by American Psychological Association.

Acknowledgement

Some of the end-of-text examples were provided by Prof Deng Xudong, Director of the Centre for Communications Skills, Singapore Institute of Technology.

Updated by Joan Wee on 27 August 2018.