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Evidence Based Practice

INTEGRATE the evidence

Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt (2015, p. 10), Step 4 = "Integrate the best evidence with one's clinical expertise and patient preferences and values in making a practice decision or change".


Once you have found the evidence from various sources* to help with your clinical question (assignment or thesis topic), you need to decide if you can apply that evidence, and in what ways

*like the library databases, of course!

And don't forget to cite all the sources you use according to a specific citation style.

Scientific Writing

One of the most brilliant quotes I have ever read can be found in an article by Hotaling. It seems to say it all and is only part of the reason you should read the article.

I am writing a longer letter than usual because there is not enough time to write a short one.”

by Blaise Pascal, Lettres Provinciales (ca. 1657) French Philosopher & Mathematician. 


 Hotaling, S. (2020). Simple rules for concise scientific writing. Limnology and Oceanography Letters, 5(6), 379-383.



Another useful article if you need help with scientific writing.


 Hyatt, J. P. K., Bienenstock, E. J., & Tilan, J. U. (2017). A student guide to proofreading and writing in science. Advances in Physiology Education, 41(3), 324-331.

Need Help with Statistics?

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Applying the Evidence - Optional Reading

The kind of questions you should be asking yourself at this stage deal with:

  • the relationship between the population in the evidence you have found, and the patient
  • the treatment benefits versus the cost or potential harm
  • patient preferences and values

Follow the link below to read a very useful article that provides a, easy-to-read overview of Evidence Based Practice.

Guyatt, G.H., Haynes, R.B., Jaeschke, R.Z., Cook, D.J., Green, L., Naylor, C.D,...Richardson, W.S. (2000). Users' guides to the medical literature XXV. Evidence-based medicine: Principles for applying the users' guides to patient careJAMA, 284(10), 1290–1296.

Click the "Download PDF" option, and login via OpenAthens using your SIT user name and password.