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APA Citation Style 7th Ed. (other styles too)


Audiovisual media may be:

Visual and Audio Audio only Visual only
  • film
  • television shows
  • YouTube or Vimeo videos
  • music
  • sound recordings
  • artwork
  • PowerPoint slides
  • photograph


The authors of Audiovisual works include the following:

Media Type Author
Film Director
Webinar Instructor
Music album or song, Classical Composer
Music album or song, Modern Recording artist
Online streaming video Person/Group who uploaded the video
Photograph Photographer

Reference List Citation Examples

Audiovisual Media 


  • video from TED Talks
 Veitch, J. (2015, December). This is what happens when you reply to spam email [Video]. TED Conferences. _veitch_this_is_what_happens_when_you_reply_to_spam_email? referrer=playlist-the_most_popular_talks_of_all

  • video from TED Talks on YouTube
 TED. (2016, February 2). James Veitch: This is what happens when you reply to spam email [Video]. YouTube.

  • infographic
 Brown, J. (2021). What happened in the Library in 2020 [Infographic]. Images for All.

  • recorded webinar
 Brown, J. (2020). How do we engage our students online [Webinar]. Singapore Institute of Technology. /webinars/madeup_forall


  • YouTube
 xandru tait. (2018, November 19). Free Mendeley Mac video tutorial [Video]. YouTube.