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APA Citation Style 7th Ed. (other styles too)


TABLES consist of facts and figures systematically arranged in columns and rows. Note the use of plurals here - one row and one column does not make a table. 

When referring to a table in your assignment, never refer to "the table below" or "the table above". Always refer to a table by the number you have assigned. 


Table 1 (table number in bold font)
Projected Sales of Pet Care in Singapore
(table title in italics, 1 double-spaced line below the table number)

Year Retail Value RDP - SGD Million % Y-O-Y Growth
2019 148.4 3.7
2020 153.7 3.5
2021 159.0 3.5
2022 164.2 3.3
2023 169.5 3.2
2024 174.8 3.1
Note. This table shows how much money it is projected will be spent in Singapore on the care of pets from 2019 to 2024. Adapted from "Pet care in Singapore," by Euromonitor International. Copyright 2020 by Euromonitor International. (Please note - this is the copyright attribution for tables adapted from a Library database where asking permission is not necessary)

Figures (images too)

FIGURES can consist of:

  • graphs
  • charts and plots
  • maps
  • drawings
  • photographs.


When referring to a figure in your assignment, never refer to "the figure below", for example. Always refer to a figure by the number you have assigned. 

In Figure 1 you can see that...

Figure 1

A little bit of Zimbabwe in Singapore

Note. Photograph taken by the author on a recent trip to the Singapore
Gardens by the Bay. 

Most figures from periodicals require a copyright attribution to reprint or adapt, they usually also require permission. This copyright attribution comes after the Notes.

Source Adapted/ Reprinted Source Information Copyright Status Permissions
Journal, magazine, newspaper, or blog



Adapted from

"Title of Article,” by A. A. Author and B. B. Author, year, Title of Periodical, Volume(Issue), p. xx (DOI or URL)."

Copyright year by Name of Copyright older.


In the public domain.




- CC or Creative Commons specifies permissions, no need to ask. 

Reprinted with permission.


Adapted with permission.

- include only if you have asked for permission.

Book or Report Title of Book or Report (p. xx), by A. A. Author and B. B. Author, year, Publisher (DOI or URL).
Book Chapter “Title of Chapter,” by A. A. Author and B. B. Author, in E. E. Editor and F. F. Editor (Eds.), Title of Book (any edition or volume number, p. xx), year, Publisher (DOI or URL).
Web page / website

Title of Webpage, by A. A. Author and B. B. Author, year, Site Name (DOI or URL).


Title of Webpage, by Group Author Same as Site Name, year (DOI or URL)"


Figure 2

Bilateral elbow radiographs


Note. Frontal radiographs of the bilateral forearm of subject 2 at 1 (a, c) and 9 months (b, d) following transplantation demonstrates maturing callus formation and osseous bridging of the radius and ulna at the transplant site. Adapted from "Upper extremity composite tissue allotransplantation imaging," by E. George, D. Mitsouras, K. K. Kumamaru, N. Shah, S. E. Smith, K. Schultz, P.M. Deaver, K.M. Mullen, M.L. Steigner, E.C. Gravereaux, S. Demehri, E.M. Bueno, S.G. Talbot, B. Pomahac, and F. J. Rybicki, 2013, Eplasty, 13, p. 306 ( CC BY 4.0.

For a PowerPoint presentation, the usual APA citation style rules for figures make no sense due to lack of slide space. As the APA 7th edition makes no specific provision for presentation slides, we would suggest the following, but please check the Terms of Use of the website from where the images were obtained. Even if you use icons or images from websites that allow free downloads, you will still need to attribute correctly.

Each website usually provides its own terms. See below for a suggested Reference List citation example from Pixabay.

As this is a suggestion from your Librarians, please discuss with your lecturer or supervisor before submission. 

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Note: Use smaller text so as not to be too distracting. If the icon is a part of your design and not something you would want to refer to in your presentation, there is no need to number the figure. 


Reference list citation

 Johnson, G. (n.d.). Ekg coffee health [Digital image]. Pixabay. 

Data Sets

DATA SETS (or datasets) and the software used to analyze or measure them have their own category in APA citation style.

Please note that standard software like excel, java, SAS, and SPSS do NOT require reference entries.


  • data set without a DOI
 DataLab Tables Library. (2016). High school longitudinal study of 2009: Second follow-up (HSLS: 09) [Data set]. U.S Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. /11866?SubjectId=1&topicId=2&rst=truex
  • data set with a DOI
 WorldPop. (2020). The spatial distribution of population in Singapore, 2020 (OPP1134076) [Data set]. University of Southampton.
  • unpublished data
 Yami Gautum. (2019). Punggol community health survey [Unpublished raw data].